唐水花等报道了以廉价无毒的核黄素作为碳氮源, 一步热解制得 Fe–N–C 催化剂并将其应用于燃料电池阴极氧还原反应. 图片给出了催化剂制备和氧还原反应过程以及催化剂形貌. 见本期第1668–1679 页.
Tang and coworkers in their Article on pages 1668–1679 reported a Fe–N–C catalyst via one–step pyrolysis in the presence of anhydrate iron chloride using cheap and nontoxic riboflavin as both carbon and nitrogen precursors. The picture shows the processes of catalyst preparation and oxygen reduction reaction, as well as the morphology of the catalyst.
2011 年张涛、李隽和刘景月教授合作并首次提出了单原子催化的概念. 该概念在随后几年内吸引了广泛的关注与研究, 现已成为多相催化领域的新前沿. 本期单原子催化专刊共收集23 篇文章, 包括1 篇观点、6 篇视角、2 篇综述、2 篇小综述和12 篇研究论文.
The concept of single-atom catalysts (SAC), defined as isolated atoms individually dispersed on a solid materials, was first raised in 2011 in a seminal work produced from the cooperation of Professors Tao Zhang, Jingyue (Jimmy) Liu and Jun Li. This concept attracted considerable interests in the following years and initiated extensive investigation and has now been one of the frontiers in heterogeneous catalysis. This special issue collects 23 papers with 1 viewpoint, 6 perspectives, 2 full reviews, 2 minireviews and 12 original research papers.
尹利利等报道了一种可用于高效光催化降解异丙醇的石墨烯/电气石/二氧化钛纳米复合结构. 石墨烯的优异电子传导性质和电气石纳米颗粒表面的静电场有利于二氧化钛中光生电子和孔穴的分离和传递, 从而大幅度提高了该纳米复合体系的光催化性能. 见本期第1307–1314 页.
Yin and coworkers in their Article on pages 1307-1314 reported a graphene/tourmaline/TiO2 nanocomposite system for efficient photocatalytic degradation of 2-propanol.The superior electronic conductivity of graphene and the electrostatic field on the surface of tourmaline nanoparticles are believed to facilitate the separation and transportation of electrons and holes photogenerated in TiO2,thus significantly enhancing the photocatalytic activity of the graphene/ tourmaline/TiO2 nanocomposite system.
张超锋和王峰综述了近来应用于木质素β-O-4连接结构转化的组合策略，并提出了更具概括性的“Sell a dummy”策略，该策略通过邻近化学基团的预先修饰来降低目标化学键键能或者引入新的“底物位点”，从而更为有效地断裂β-O-4 结构中的C–O/C–C 键.见本期第1102–1107 页.
Dr. Zhang and Prof. Wang in the perspective on pages 1102–1107 has highlighted the combinatorial strategies recently used in the conversion of lignin β-O-4 linkage. They shed light on a more recapitulative “Sell a dummy” strategy, which begins with the adjacent functional group modification (AFGM) to reduce the BDE of the target bonds or introduce new “substrate sites” for the efficient cleavage of C–O/C–C bonds of β-O-4 linkage.
Zhao and co-workers in their Article on pages 1079-1086 reported the perovskite series of La1-xCaxMn1-yAlyO3 catalysts for solar-driven thermochemical water splitting.Through the optimization of doping contents on A and B sites,a highly efficient perovskite (La0.6Ca0.4Mn0.6Al0.4O3) was developed, which can stably yield a remarkable H2 production of 429 μmol/g when two-step thermochemical H2O splitting operated between 1400 and 1000℃.
Li et al.reported two doping systems,Cu doped NiO and Ni doped CuO on pages 767-774.The atomic ratio of Cu,Ni and O in the two systems is the same but the crystal phase of the two semiconductors remains unchanged. After modification,both the two doping systems turned into magnetic photocatalytic materials with high activity,which can be easily recycled as well.
How vacancies in the lattices of photocatalysts manipulate energy band structures,photogeneration charges properties,and regulate surface and interface processes? Dr.Long in the Minireview on pages 617-624 shows the critical roles of anion or cation vacancies in boosting solar photocatalytic reactions.
Catalysis is the key to creating new energy and to protecting environments for the sustainable development of the world as discussed in ICC 2016 in Beijing.For this purpose,we need to reinforce catalytic science and technology and to extend our findings to innovation.This special column invited four papers on biomass conversion and transformation of CO2,which contributes to the progress of heterogeneous catalysis.
Dr.Deng and coworkers in their Article on pages 207-216 reported that Au-Pd alloy nanocatalyst supported on the molten salt derived Co3O4 octahedron exhibited high catalytic activity for toluene and o-xylene elimination, which was ascribed to the strong interaction between Au-Pd nanoparticles and Co3O4,and enhanced adsorption of oxygen.
从电力到产品的策略, 旨在将CO2还原成有价值的产品, 但其过程中不产生额外的温室气体, 如此形成碳循环. 朱晓兵及石川等人报道了CeO2负载纳米金催化剂在较低温度和常压下催化CO2加氢, 获得接近热力学平衡的CO2转化率以及近100%的CO产物选择性.
Strategy of power to products aims at CO2 reduction to produce useful products but without generating additional greenhouse gas emissions, which enables carbon neutral cycle. Dr. Xiaobing Zhu and Dr. Chuan Shi reported a high CO2 conversion, approaching the thermodynamic equilibrium value, and nearly 100% CO selectivity over Au/CeO2 catalyst being achieved at low temperatures and atmospheric pressure.
何洪波等报道了一种超声辅助共沉淀法制备稳定的高催化性能 Ag2S/Ag2WO4 微米棒复合光催化剂. 超声处理有利于Ag2S与Ag2WO4晶面的紧密接触, 提高光生电子空穴对的分离效率. 见本期第1841–1850 页.
He and coworkers in their Article on 1841–1850 reported a high photocatalytic activity and stability Ag2S/Ag2WO4 composite microrod photocatalyst was fabricated by a facile sonochemical route. The produced intimate Ag2S/Ag2WO4 interface between Ag2S and Ag2WO4 crystal phases largely promotes the separation of photogenerated holes and electrons.
在20世纪80年代，G. J. Hutchings教授和M. Haruta教授分别发现四氯金酸和纳米金(<5 nm)能够高效催化乙炔氢氯化制备氯乙烯和一氧化碳低温氧化. 迄今为止，这些里程碑式的发现激发了人们广泛探索金催化. 这反 映在金催化领域研究论文数量的指数级增长. 本期金催化专刊收录了25篇文章，介绍了金催化剂在一氧化碳氧化、醇氧化、生物质加氢、氢氯化、加氢脱氯、硝酮合成、酰胺N-烷基化及其它一些反应中催化应用的最新进展.
In 1980s Prof. G. J. Hutchings found that chloroauric acid displayed superior catalytic performance in acetylene hydrochlorination to vinyl chloride and Prof. M. Haruta found that gold nanoparticles smaller than 5 nm exhibited extremely high catalytic activity in CO oxidation even at a temperature as low as 200 K. So far these milestone discoveries have ignited extensive investigations on gold catalysis, which can be reflected in the exponential increase of the publications in the field of gold catalysis. This special issue contains 25 articles and introduces the latest progresses in the catalytic applications of gold catalysts in CO oxidation, aerobic oxidation of alcohols, biomass hydrogenation, hydrochlorination, hydrodechlorination, nitrones synthesis, amides N-alkylation, etc.
刘钢等报道了一种多孔炭载铁基催化剂(FeOx/HCMK-3), 其在醇与胺氧化偶合合成亚胺反应中表现出优异的催化性能. 高分散的氧化铁物种 (FeOx)使催化剂具有独特的氧化还原性质, 这是其表现出较高催化活性的关键. 见本期第1451–1460 页.
Liu and coworkers in their Article on pages 1451–1460 reported a kind of Fe catalyst supported on mesoporous carbon (FeOx/HCMK-3). It shows high activity and recyclability in imine synthesis from oxidative coupling of alcohol and amine with air as oxygen source. The highly dispersed FeOx species give FeOx/HCMK-3 high reducibility and are responsible for the high catalytic performance.
朱庆英等合成了(S)-2-氨甲基吡咯烷氨基-β-环糊精, 图片中给出了该材料的结构. 将该材料用于室温水相中环己酮和 4-硝基-β-硝基苯乙烯的不对称迈克尔加成反应, 获得中等产率和较优对映选择性顺式结构为主的加成产物. 见本期第 1227–1234 页.
(S)-2-Aminomethylpyrrolidine-modified β-cyclodextrins were synthesized as described by Zhu and coworkers in their Article on pages 1227–1234 and used in asymmetric Michael additions of cyclohexanone and 4-nitro-β-nitrostyrene in water at room temperature. Moderate yields and higher enantioselectivity for the syn addition product were obtained.
Electrocatalysis is the central issue in electrochemical energy conversion and storage, which play a major role in today’s energy structure by utilizing efficiently renewable energies, such as wind energy, solar energy, tide energy, etc. The electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies including fuel cells, rechargeable batteries, and waste-to-energy (CO2 reduction) technologies are of historical significance in sustainable energy and clean environment. The challenges in electrocatalysis lye mainly in the innovation of the catalysis process and optimization of the catalytic features in devices, as well as the exploration of new and efficient catalysts. This special issue contains 23 articles that focus on renewable energy technologies, including both fundamental studies and device applications of electrocatalysis.